Connecting wires

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Connecting wires allows an electrical current to travel from one point on a circuit to another because electricity needs a medium through which it can move. Most of the connecting wires are made up of copper or aluminum. Copper is cheap and good conductivity. Instead of the copper, we can also use silver which has high conductivity but it is too costly to use.

Electrical wiring symbols

Wires are two types

Image result for electrical wire color and their standards

In labs, we can use many wires

  • Male to female wires which are used for Arduino.

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  • Banana wire used for used to test cable

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  • Crocodile wires mostly used for CRO

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  • Wire used by multimeter

Image result for connecting wires with alligator clips

Color Code:

The color code identifies the wire which is to be used.

Wiring Color Codes Infographic

US recommended DC power circuit wiring color codes.

Function label Color
Protective ground PG bare, green, or green-yellow
2-wire ungrounded DC Power System
Positive L+ no recommendation (red)
Negative L- no recommendation (black)
2-wire grounded DC Power System
Positive (of a negative grounded) circuit L+ red
Negative (of a negative grounded) circuit N white
Positive (of a positive grounded) circuit N white
Negative (of a positive grounded) circuit L- black
3-wire grounded DC Power System
Positive L+ red
Mid-wire (center tap) N white
Negative L- black

EC DC power circuit wiring color codes.

Function label Color
Protective earth PE green-yellow
2-wire unearthed DC Power System
Positive L+ brown
Negative L- grey
2-wire earthed DC Power System
Positive (of a negative earthed) circuit L+ brown
Negative (of a negative earthed) circuit M blue
Positive (of a positive earthed) circuit M blue
Negative (of a positive earthed) circuit L- grey
3-wire earthed DC Power System
Positive L+ brown
Mid-wire M blue
Negative L- grey

Canada AC power circuit wiring color codes.

Function label Color, common
Protective ground PG green or green-yellow
Neutral N white
Line, single phase L black or red (2nd hot)
Line, 3-phase L1 red
Line, 3-phase L2 black
Line, 3-phase L3 blue

US AC power circuit wiring color codes.

Function label Color, common Color, alternative
Protective ground PG bare, green, or green-yellow green
Neutral N white grey
Line, single phase L black or red (2nd hot)
Line, 3-phase L1 black brown
Line, 3-phase L2 red orange
Line, 3-phase L3 blue yellow

UK AC power circuit wiring color codes.

Function label Color, IEC Old UK color
Protective earth PE green-yellow green-yellow
Neutral N blue black
Line, single phase L brown red
Line, 3-phase L1 brown red
Line, 3-phase L2 black yellow
Line, 3-phase L3 grey blue

IEC (most of Europe) AC power circuit wiring color codes.

Function label Color, IEC Color, old IEC
Protective earth PE green-yellow green-yellow
Neutral N blue blue
Line, single phase L brown brown or black
Line, 3-phase L1 brown brown or black
Line, 3-phase L2 black brown or black
Line, 3-phase L3 grey brown or black
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